Solano County Superior Court Judge Robert Bowers' wife called police at 11 p.m. Sunday to report the incident.
Bowers was arrested about two hours later near his car at 321 Tuolumne St., close to Solano County Superior Court, where he presides in Department 15.
Attorney Dan Russo said Bowers never made physical contact with his wife at the time she was injured.
Russo said Bowers and his wife were building a deck at their Vallejo home Sunday and that Bowers' wife "took a flop off the deck."
"It's insane. He's completely innocent. This has been a nightmare," Russo said.
Vallejo police Sgt. Jeff Bassett said Bowers' wife suffered a minor injury, but that the alleged assault "met the qualifications of a felony" offense.
Bowers was booked into jail at 3:22 a.m. Monday, but posted $25,000 bail and was released by 4 a.m., Solano County sheriff's Lt. Gary Faulkner said.
He was scheduled to be arraigned on the felony domestic violence charge on May 2 at the Vallejo courthouse.
Russo said Bowers was not at work Tuesday morning.
The Solano County District Attorney's Office was unsure Tuesday whether the state Attorney General's Office would handle the prosecution.
"It probably will be the attorney general, but I'm not clear they are the appropriate agency," Russo said.
"Once all the facts come out, he will be cleared. We're not questioning the interpretation of what happened. He's completely not guilty," Russo said.
Solano County District Attorney Don du Bain was not immediately available for comment.